Philippe Kainuma, Yannick Yamamoto, Nobuhiro Takiguchi, Kimberly Rzymkiewicz, Jean-François Eduardo
The immune response to various physiological challenges is characterized by increased neutrophil and decreased lymphocyte counts, and NLR is often recognized as an inflammatory marker to assess the severity of the disease. Further, there is a close relationship between systemic inflammation and cancer development and progression, whereas its association with braest cancer remains unclear. Univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the influence of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and cancer of the breast cancer. In conclusion, a high preoperative N/L ratio may be a convenient biomarker to identify patients with a poor prognosis breast cancer.
Keywords: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; Inflammatory marker; Breast cancer; Cancer
- Von Vietinghoff S, Ley K. Homeostatic regulation of blood neutrophil counts. J Immunol 2008;181:5183-5188. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Horne BD, Anderson JL, John JM, et al. Which white blood cell subtypes predict increased cardiovascular risk? Journal of The American College of Cardiology 2005;45:1638-1643. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Nathan C. Neutrophils and immunity: challenges and opportunities. Nat. Rev. Immunol 2006;6:173-182. [PubMed]
- Mantovani A, Allavena P, Sica A, Balkwill F. Cancer-related inflammation. Nature 2008;454(7203):436-444. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Balkwill F, Charles KA, Mantovani A. Smoldering and polarized inflammation in the initiation and promotion of malignant disease. Cancer Cell 2005; 7(3):211-217. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Bambury RM, Teo MY, Power DG, et al. The association of pre-treatment neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio with overall survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. J Neurooncolsss 2013;114(1):149-154. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Gomez D, Farid S, Malik HZ, et al. Preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio as a prognostic predictor after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Surg 2008; 32(8):1757-1762.
- AI-Timimi AH, Yousif NG.Immunohistochemical determination of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer: pathological correlation and prognostic indicators. American Journal of BioMedicine 2014; 2(12):1229-1239. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Yu-Chun Lin, Dong-Qing Chin, Eva Wang, Hao Cheng. Suppressions of metastatic breast cancer invasion and metastasis to brain/cross talk HER2/ERK1/2/MMP-9 signaling pathway. American Journal of BioMedicine 2014;2:1197-1209. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- McMillan DC. The systemic inflammation-based Glasgow Prognostic Score: a decade of experience in patients with cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 2013; 39(5):534-540. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Kasymjanova G, MacDonald N, Agulnik JS, et al. The predictive value of pre-treatment inflammatory markers in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Curr Oncol 2010;17(4):52-58. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Liu H, Liu G, Bao Q, et al. The baseline ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes is associated with patient prognosis in rectal carcinoma. J Gastrointest Cancer 2010; 41(2):116-120. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Aaltomaa S, Lipponen P, Eskelinen M, et al. Lymphocyte infiltrates as a prognostic variable in female breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 1992;28:859–64.
- Kawata A, Une Y, Hosokawa M, et al. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1992;22:256–63. [PubMed]
- Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature 2002;420:860–7. [PubMed]
- Liu H, Tabuchi T, Takemura A, et al. The granulocyte/lymphocyte ratio as an independent predictor of tumor growth, metastasis and progression: its clinical applications. Mol Med Rep 2008;1:699–704.
- Yamanaka T, Matsumoto S, Teramukai S, et al. The baseline ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes is associated with patient prognosis in advanced gastric cancer. Oncology 2007;73:215–20. [PubMed]
- Atzpodien J, Royston P, Wandert T, et al. Metastatic renal carcinoma comprehensive prognostic system. Br J Cancer. 2003;88:348–53. [PubMed]
- Kay HD, Smith DL. Regulation of human lymphocyte-mediated natural killer (NK) cell activity: inhibition in vitro by peripheral blood granulocytes. J Immunol 1983;130:475–83. [PubMed]
- Sato H, Tsubosa Y, Kawano T. Correlation between the pretherapeutic neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the pathologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. World J Surg 2012;36(3):617-622. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Sarraf KM, Belcher E, Raevsky E, Nicholson AG, Goldstraw P, Lim E. Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and its association with survival after complete resection in non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surgss 2009;137(2):425-428. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Shimada H, Takiguchi N, Kainuma O, et al. High preoperative neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio predicts poor survival in patients with gastric cancer. Gastric cance 2010;13(3):170-176. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Kao SC, Pavlakis N, Harvie R, et al. High blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is an indicator of poor prognosis in malignant mesothelioma patients undergoing systemic therapy. Clin Cancer Res 2010;16(23):5805-5813. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Houghton AM, Rzymkiewicz DM, Ji H, et al. Neutrophil elastase-mediated degradation of IRS-1 accelerates lung tumor growth. Nat Med 2010; 16(2):219-223. [PubMed]
- Sumbul AT, Sezer A, Abali H, et al. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts PSA response, but not outcomes in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with docetaxel. Int Urol Nephrol 2014; 46(8):1531-1535. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Schmidt H, Suciu S, Punt CJ, et al. Pretreatment levels of peripheral neutrophils and leukocytes as independent predictors of overall survival in patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage IV Melanoma: results of the EORTC 18951 Biochemotherapy Trial. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25(12):562-1569. [Abstract/Full-Text]
- Belaaouaj A, McCarthy R, Baumann M, et al. Mice lacking neutrophil elastase reveal impaired host defense against Gram-negative bacterial sepsis. Nat. Med 1998;4:615–618. [PubMed]
- Wada, Y. et al. Neutrophil elastase induces cell proliferation and migration by the release of TGFα, PDGF and VEGF in esophageal cell lines. Oncol. Rep 2007;17:161–167. [PubMed]
- Liou TG, Campbell EJ. Quantum proteolysis resulting from release of single granules by human neutrophils: a novel, nonoxidative mechanism of extracellular proteolytic activity. J. Immunol 1996;157:2624–2631. [PubMed]
- Germano G, Allavena P, Mantovani A. Cytokines as a key component of cancer-related inflammation. Cytokine 2008;43(3):374-379. [PubMed]
Philippe Kainuma, Yannick Yamamoto, Nobuhiro Takiguchi, Kimberly Rzymkiewicz, Jean-François Eduardo. Critical relationship between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio with overall survival breast cancer. Journal of cellular cancer 2015; 7(1):17-29.